vrijdag 7 augustus 2015


The Rapture in 2 Thessalonians 2:3

Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the apostasy comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction. (2 Thessalonians 2:3)

I believe that there is a strong possibility that 2 Thessalonians 2:3 is speaking of the rapture.  What do I mean?  Some pretribulationists, like myself, think that the Greek noun apostasia, usually translated "apostasy," is a reference to the rapture and should be translated "departure."  Thus, this passage would be saying that the day of the Lord will not come until the rapture comes before it.  If apostasia is a reference to a physical departure, then 2 Thessalonians 2:3 is strong evidence for pretribulationism.

The Meaning of Apostasia

The Greek noun apostasia is only used twice in the New Testament.  In addition to 2 Thessalonians 2:3, it occurs in Acts 21:21 where, speaking of Paul, it is said, "that you are teaching all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake (apostasia) Moses."  The word is a Greek compound of apo " from" and istemi "stand."  Thus, it has the core meaning of "away from" or "departure."  The Liddell and Scott Greek Lexicon defines apostasia first as "defection, revolt;" then secondly as "departure, disappearance."[1] Gordon Lewis explains how the verb from which the noun apostasia is derived supports the basic meaning of departure in the following:

The verb may mean to remove spatially.  There is little reason then to deny that the noun can mean such a spatial removal or departure.  Since the noun is used only one other time in the New Testament of apostasy from Moses (Acts 21:21), we can hardly conclude that its Biblical meaning is necessarily determined.  The verb is used fifteen times in the New Testament.  Of these fifteen, only three have anything to do with a departure from the faith (Luke 8:13; 1 Timothy 4:1; Hebrews 3:12).  The word is used for departing from iniquity (2 Timothy 2:19), from ungodly men (1 Timothy 6:5), from the temple (Luke 2:27), from the body (2 Corinthians 12:8), and from persons (Acts 12:10; Luke 4:13).[2]

"It is with full assurance of proper exegetical study and with complete confidence in the original languages," concludes Daniel Davey, "that the word meaning of apostasia is defined as departure."[3]  Paul Lee Tan adds the following:

What precisely does Paul mean when he says that "the falling away" (2:3) must come before the tribulation?  The definite article "the" denotes that this will be a definite event, an event distinct from the appearance of the Man of Sin.  The Greek word for "falling away," taken by itself, does not mean religious apostasy or defection.  Neither does the word mean "to fall," as the Greeks have another word for that. [pipto, I fall; TDI]  The best translation of the word is "to depart."  The apostle Paul refers here to a definite event which he calls "the departure," and which will occur just before the start of the tribulation.  This is the rapture of the church.[4]

So the word has the core meaning of departure and it depends upon the context to determine whether it is used to mean physical departure or an abstract departure such as departure from the faith.

Translation History

The first seven English translations of apostasia all rendered the noun as either "departure" or "departing."  They are as follows:  Wycliffe Bible (1384); Tyndale Bible (1526); Coverdale Bible (1535); Cranmer Bible (1539); Breeches Bible (1576); Beza Bible (1583); Geneva Bible (1608).[5]  This supports the notion that the word truly means "departure."  In fact, Jerome's Latin translation known as the Vulgate from around the time of a.d. 400 renders apostasia with the "word discessio, meaning 'departure.'"[6]  Why was the King James Version the first to depart from the established translation of "departure"?

Theodore Beza, the Swiss reformer was the first to transliterate apostasia and create a new word, rather than translate it as others had done.  The translators of the King James Version were the first to introduce the new rendering of apostasia as "falling away."  Most English translators have followed the KJV and Beza in departing from translating apostasia as "departure."  No good reason was ever given.

The Use of the Article

It is important to note that Paul uses a definite article with the noun apostasia.  What does this mean?  Davey notes the following:

Since the Greek language does not need an article to make the noun definite, it becomes clear that with the usage of the article reference is being made to something in particular.  In 2 Thessalonians 2:3 the word apostasia is prefaced by the definite article which means that Paul is pointing to a particular type of departure clearly known to the Thessalonian church.[7]

Dr. Lewis provides a likely answer when he notes that the definite article serves to make a word distinct and draw attention to it.  In this instance he believes that its purpose is "to denote a previous reference." "The departure Paul previously referred to was 'our being gathered to him' (v. 1) and our being 'caught up' with the Lord and the raptured dead in the clouds (1 Thessalonians 4:17)," notes Dr. Lewis.[8]  The "departure" was something that Paul and his readers clearly had a mutual understanding about.  Paul says in verse 5, "Do you not remember that while I was still with you, I was telling you these things?"

The use of the definite article would also support the notion that Paul spoke of a clear, discernable event.  A physical departure, like the rapture would fit just such a notion.  However, the New Testament teaches that apostasy had already arrived in the first century (cf. Acts 20:27-32; 1 Timothy 4:1-5; 2 Timothy 3:1-9; 2 Peter 2:1-3; Jude 3-4, 17-21) and thus, such a process would not denote a clear event as demanded by the language of this passage.  Understanding departure as the rapture would satisfy the nuance of this text.  E. Schuyler English explains as follows:

Again, how would the Thessalonians, or Christians in any century since, be qualified to recognize the apostasy when it should come, assuming, simply for the sake of this inquiry, that the Church might be on earth when it does come?  There has been apostasy from God, rebellion against Him, since time began.[9]

Whatever Paul is referring to in his reference to "the departure," was something that both the Thessalonian believers and he had discussed in-depth previously.  When we examine Paul's first letter to the Thessalonians, he never mentions the doctrine of apostasy, however, virtually every chapter in that epistle speaks of the rapture (cf. 1:9-10; 2:19; probably 3:13; 4:13-17; 5:1-11).  In these passages, Paul has used a variety of Greek terms to describe the rapture.   It should not be surprising that he uses another term to reference the rapture in 2 Thessalonians 2:3.  Dr. House tells us:

Remember, the Thessalonians had been led astray by the false teaching (2:2-3) that the Day of the Lord had already come.  This was confusing because Paul offered great hope, in the first letter, of a departure to be with Christ and a rescue from God's wrath.  Now a letter purporting to be from Paul seems to say that they would first have to go through the Day of the Lord.  Paul then clarified his prior teaching by emphasizing that they had no need to worry.  They could again be comforted because the departure he had discussed in his first letter, and in his teaching while with them, was still the truth.  The departure of Christians to be with Christ, and the subsequent revelation of the lawless one, Paul argues, is proof that the Day of the Lord had not begun as they had thought.  This understanding of apostasia makes much more sense than the view that they are to be comforted (v. 2) because a defection from the faith must precede the Day of the Lord.  The entire second chapter (as well as 1 Thessalonians 4:18; 5:11) serves to comfort (see vv. 2, 3, 17), supplied by a reassurance of Christ's coming as taught in his first letter.[10]

Departure and the Restrainer

Since pretribulationists believe that the restrainer mentioned in verses 6 and 7 is the Holy Spirit and teaches a pre-trib rapture, then it should not be surprising to see that there is a similar progression of thought in the progression of verse 3.  Allan MacRae, president of Faith Theological Seminary in a letter to Schuyler English has said the following concerning this matter:

I wonder if you have noticed the striking parallel between this verse and verses 7-8, a little further down.  According to your suggestion verse 3 mentions the departure of the church as coming first, and then tells of the revealing of the man of sin.  In verses 7 and 8 we find the identical sequence.  Verse 7 tells of the removal of the Church; verse 8 says: "And then shall that Wicked be revealed."  Thus close examination of the passage shows an inner unity and coherence, if we take the word apostasia in its general sense of "departure," while a superficial examination would easily lead to an erroneous interpretation as "falling away" because of the proximity of the mention of the man of sin.[11]

Kenneth Wuest, a Greek scholar from Moody Bible Institute added the following contextual support to taking apostasia as a physical departure:

But then hee apostasia of which Paul is speaking, precedes the revelation of Antichrist in his true identity, and is to katechon that which holds back his revelation (2:6). The hee apostasia, therefore, cannot be either a general apostasy in Christendom which does precede the coming of Antichrist, nor can it be the particular apostasy which is the result of his activities in making himself the alone object of worship.  Furthermore, that which holds back his revelation (vs. 3) is vitally connected with hoo katechoon (vs. 7), He who holds back the same event.  The latter is, in my opinion, the Holy Spirit and His activities in the Church.  All of which means that I am driven to the inescapable conclusion that the hee apostasia (vs. 3) refers to the Rapture of the Church which precedes the Day of the Lord, and holds back the revelation of the Man of Sin who ushers in the world-aspect of that period.[12]


The fact that apostasia most likely has the meaning of physical departure is a clear support for pretribulationism.  If this is true, (Dr. Tim LaHaye and I believe that it is), then it means that a clear prophetic sequence is laid out by Paul early in his Apostolic ministry.  Paul teaches in 2 Thessalonians 2 that the rapture will occur first, before the Day of the Lord commences.  It is not until after the beginning of the Day of the Lord that the Antichrist is released, resulting in the events described by him in chapter 2 of 2 Thessalonians. This is the only interpretation that provides hope for a discomforted people. Maranatha!


[1] Henry George Liddell and Henry Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Revised with a Supplement [1968] by Sir Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie (Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, 1940), p. 218.

[2] Gordon R. Lewis, "Biblical Evidence for Pretribulationism," Bibliotheca Sacra (vol. 125, no. 499; July 1968), p. 218.

[3] Daniel K. Davey, "The 'Apostesia' of II Thessalonians 2:3," Th.M. thesis, Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary, May 1982, p. 27.

[4] Paul Lee Tan, The Interpretation of Prophecy (Winona Lake, IN: Assurance Publishers, 1974), p. 341.

[5] H. Wayne House, "Apostasia in 2 Thessalonians 2:3: Apostasy or Rapture?" in Thomas Ice and Timothy Demy, eds., When the Trumpet Sounds: Today's Foremost Authorities Speak Out on End-Time Controversies (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1995), p. 270.

[6] House, "Apostesia", p. 270.

[7] Davey, "Apostesia", p. 47.

[8] Gordon R. Lewis & Bruce A. Demarest, Integrative Theology 3 vols in 1 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), vol. 3, p. 420.

[9] E. Schuyler English, Re-Thinking the Rapture (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1954), p. 70.

[10] House, "Apostesia", pp. 275-76.

[11] Allan A. MacRae, Letter to E. Schuyler English, published in "Let the Prophets Speak," Our Hope, (vol. LVI, num. 12; June 1950), p. 725.

[12] Kenneth S. Wuest, Letter to E. Schuyler English, published in "Let the Prophets Speak," Our Hope, (vol. LVI, num. 12; June 1950), p. 731.

38 opmerkingen:

  1. +fatherwithlove46 Check this out: http://www.raptureready.com/rr-pretribulation-rapture.html

    More on my site: Rapture and prophecy http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/search/label/Opname%20en%20profetie-Rapture%20and%20prophecy

    I'm Dutch, so sometimes you'll come across some older topics in Dutch, but mos of my info, or links to it, is in English.

  2. +Oopsie Daisie Doosie This song contains this verse: In my Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. John 14:2 The Les Humphries Singers, To My Father's House HD https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JB_K8Ii7fKA The video was recorded in the Netherlands. +Kenny Jacobs

  3. In case we really trust JESUS, we know we're not appointed to HIS wrath, and we're awaiting the DEPARTURE, aka the pre-Times of Jacob's Trouble-RAPTURE http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/2015/08/the-glorious-departure.html Tell your husband he's blessed with a pretty wife and wonderful children.

  4. +Rachel Smith
    Nice try 'Rachel', but it's clear you don't want to believe in the pre-Times of Jacob's Trouble-rapture and you rather believe in the Roman Catholic replacement theology garbage, judging from your sarcasm.

    So please suffer as much as you want and try to earn heaven....it wont work.
    I have a much better theology: just believe in JESUS Christ and make the right distinction between His plans (He's God, you know) with His chosen people Israel and the remnant thereof, and his plans with the Body of Christ.
    Israel's Kingdom Gospel and Our Grace Gospel http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/2015/07/israels-kingdom-gospel-and-our-grace.html

    Mysterious Body of Christ http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/search/label/Mysterious%20Body%20of%20Christ

  5. +Rachel Smith
    I mentioned the replacement theology, because that's what you believe in, because you don't (yet) see the distinction between God's plans with His chosen people Israel and the remnant thereof, and His plans with the Body of Christ.

    Galatians 3:28-29
    28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. 29 And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.

    These are the rules within the Body of Christ, but God's chosen people, the Jews, aren't part of it, and they're still God's chosen people, whether they themselves and non-Jews like it or not.

    Many things JESUS taught was meant for the Jews and not for the Body of Christ, which didn't even exist during JESUS' ministry.

    The real start of the Body of Christ was when JESUS gave Saul (Paul) 'a close encounter with God of the first kind', after the APOSTLE Paul started to preach the MYSTERY GOSPEL, which Satan HATES!
    Satan's Attack on The Mystery Gospel

  6. +Rachel Smith
    First off I don't trust you and you have a typical troll-account with a no posts
    https://plus.google.com/u/0/103214103491460607137/posts and this goes for your YouTube-channel too https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCx49uI2klctaaAFSgLWjqMg/about and then you use a typical mind control picture of a seductive woman, so I don't believe your name is Rachel Smith.

    I'm used to people like you, but could you please try to become an honest person?

    Important other question: do you LOVE JESUS Christ and secondary question: are you saved?

  7. +fueler747
    +TONY COSTANZO Well I believe that in the near future we don't have to share this world with Satan, the other fallen angels and his people, anymore, because JESUS is going to take us away through the rapture.

    Then they are rid of us and vice versa.
    I'm still willing to tell people who don't yet belong to JESUS about Him and how they can get saved through Him, and among those are still many relatives, who are no relatives to me anymore in eternity, because we are meant to be like the angels, and angels aren't related to each other like humans.
    I'm ready for God's ETERNAL wedding party in honor of our savior JESUS!

  8. +Tfc Drew
    You say the Pope is the man of sin and I say he's the Antichrist.
    What's the difference?

    Frank Marshall Davis jr, aka Barry Davis, aka 'Obama' is his executor/MUPPET.

    We clearly disagree on this: The Rapture Theory http://www.end-times-prophecy.org/rapture-theory-false.html

    Case Closed - Evidence For Pre Trib Rapture http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/2015/07/case-closed-evidence-for-pre-trib.html

    Israel's Kingdom Gospel and Our Grace Gospel http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/2015/07/israels-kingdom-gospel-and-our-grace.html

    More: http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/search/label/Opname%20en%20profetie-Rapture%20and%20prophecy

  9. Sweet +Silvana Smith (778Denver) said:
    YOU ARE AN IDIOT!!! 14 minutes of garbage!
    I have not heard such butchering of Scripture in a long time! The only thing you are right about is the WOF pastors! But you are STILL an idiot!!! HELLO!!!!!! Michael is the worrier angel for Israel! If you are going to pretend you had a vision.........at least read through the Bible once to know what the hell you are talking about! And you CANNOT lose your salvation or be left behind once you are born again! Oh and there are NO Biblical tongues you lying cow! Imbecile! Read your Bible!

  10. +Yoon Pender
    Matthew 24 is a message for the Jews: Israel's Kingdom Gospel and Our Grace Gospel
    Hans S
    10:18 PM

    +Laine Gordon Luke was Jewish, speaker tells Messianic fellowship http://www.bpnews.net/18466/luke-was-jewish-speaker-tells-messianic-fellowship

  11. +Ray Giordano Yes, JESUS has saved me and you too!
    We're going to an eternal wedding feast in honor of JESUS, so there will be plenty of time to celebrate with our new bodies!

    The whole Bible is a miracle, and prophesy is my main interest too.
    I believe we're very near to the pre-Times of Jacob's Trouble-rapture, which is a better term than the 'pre-tribulation-rapture', because there has always been tribulation for the real believers in JESUS since the start of the Body of Christ.

  12. The oil is an image of the Holy Spirit.
    MANY believers in JESUS have NEVER ASKED the Father to be filled with His Holy Spirit, because they were taught that the experience of becoming a believer was already enough.

    But then they forgot to read this:

    World English Bible, 2002
    King James Version, 1611
    13 If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ASK him?"
    13 If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children: how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ASK him?
    Luke 11,13 http://www.biblija.net/biblija.cgi?Bible=Bible&m=Luke+11%2C13&id14=1&id7=1&pos=0&set=3&l=en

    Example; "Father God, I ASK you in JESUS' name to fill me with your Holy Spirit..and I PRAISE YOU AND I THANK YOU and I WORSHIP YOU!

    The first time I became a believer in JESUS I was almost 21 and it lasted less then a WEEK and mind you: I'm an ex-theist who never went to church.

    Afterwards I was 'running with the devil' again.

    How was this possible?

    I wasn't filled with the Holy Spirit, because I had never ASKED the Father to do so!

    If I had died during that time, I would have gone to hell/the lake of fire!

    After my final surrender to JESUS, after I had just become 24, I came into contact with people who taught me this important principle, and this didn't happen the first time, because I didn't want to have anything to do with 'Christians'.
    When I was alone with God-the Lord JESUS in someone else's car and waiting for the owner to return, I started to pray which turned into WORSHIP....and then it happened and I became OVERJOYED through the Holy Spirit and I began to praise God-the Lord JESUS even more!

    I believe this was the moment I became SEALED.

    So all people who believe FOR SURE they are SEALED with the Holy Spirit are members of the Body of Christ, and they don't have to worry.

    But those who haven't yet asked to be filled with the Holy Spirit should listen to what JESUS says:

    Luke 11:13 1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)
    13 If ye then which are evil, can give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give the holy Ghost to them that desire him?

    In this translation the word is DESIRE, which is even better: it's like FALLING in LOVE with JESUS!

    Those who will be raptured have FALLEN in LOVE with JESUS!

    Those who will be left behind (which means they'll get a last chance during the Times of Jacob's Trouble-tribulation to make a radical decision for JESUS), are on the SUDDEN MOMENT of the rapture NOT filled with the 'oil' of the Holy Spirit.

    If people say these words of the Lord JESUS in Matthew 25:1-13 are only meant for Israel and the remnant thereof, it's not true.

    WISE virgins have ASKED to be filled with the Holy Spirit, and FOOLISH virgins haven't.

    Are you sure you have ASKED/DESIRED (from) God the Father to be filled with His Holy Spirit?

  13. +It's Ya Girl, Jesus' Wife
    Yes, glory to JESUS, Princess!
    I'm doing fine, because of OUR Savior, JESUS!

    Thanks for asking me!
    I assume you're doing fine too, for the same reason.
    But I would be a liar, if I would say that being here in the dimension, between heaven and hell, is the best imaginable circumstance, because it's not.
    As the Bible (God-the Lord JESUS) says we're longing for the redemption of our (mortal) body.

    Romans 8:23 World English Bible (WEB)
    23 Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body.

    Romans 8:23 1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)
    23 And not only the creature, but we also which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we do sigh in ourselves, waiting for the adoption, even the redemption of our body. https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Romans+8%3A23+&version=GNV

    Our Hope: The Redemption of Our Bodies http://www.desiringgod.org/messages/our-hope-the-redemption-of-our-bodies

    Love in our Lord JESUS from your brother Hans ;-))

  14. Will YOU Be Ready??

    Israel's Kingdom Gospel and Our Grace Gospel http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/2015/07/israels-kingdom-gospel-and-our-grace.html
    Les Feldick - Why We Stand On a Pre Trib Rapture http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/2015/06/les-feldick-why-we-stand-on-pre-trib.html

  15. +Motive 3rd
    Money is power in this world.

    Who is the richest person on earth?
    Obama or the Pope?
    The POPE!
    He owns TRILLIONS, while he pretends to be poor, but apart form that: his true god is LUCIFER and he's the black pope in white, and the ROMAN EMPEROR, disguised as a religious leader: http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/2015/04/the-satanic-power-tree.html

    1. +Motive 3rd You say this because you're not sufficiently informed. Know more about this Pope: he EATS babies and he DRINKS their BLOOD! Francis The Baby Eater http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/2015/05/francis-baby-eater.html Antichrist http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/search/label/AntichristPope Francis http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/search/label/Pope%20Francis

    The true born again believers in JESUS will be caught up to where JESUS is, before the start of the Time of Jacob's Trouble.
    Those who will be left behind aren't yet saved and born again and sealed with the Holy Spirit.

    The rapture will happen suddenly and unexpectedly, but 'the wise virgins' will be ready, because they have their lamps filled with oil, which is an image of the Holy Spirit.

    Enoch is the example: Genesis 5:24
    And Enoch walked with God, and he was no more seen: for God took him away.

    Those who walk with God-the Lord JESUS are ready.
    Those who are focused on other things aren't.

  17. Is The Pre-Trib Rapture A Jesuit/Illuminati Conspiracy?

    Mysterious Body of Christ http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/search/label/Mysterious%20Body%20of%20Christ

    Gospel of GRACE http://ezekiel38rapture.blogspot.nl/search/label/Gospel%20of%20GRACE

    1. +excatholics Brother, you mentioned the wrong translation of the Greek word 'apostasia' in 2 Thessalonians 2:3

      KJV - Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition

      This is the RIGHT translation:

      2 Thessalonians 2:3 1599 Geneva Bible (GNV) 3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a departing first, and that that man of sin be disclosed, even the son of perdition.

      The RIGHT translation of the Greek word 'apostasia' into departing (departure is also good)
      departing or departure is referring to the rapture!

  18. Reacties
    1. 2 Thessalonians 2:10-12 is not meant for the Body of Christ!

      2 Thessalonians 2:10-12 1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)

      10 And in all deceivableness of unrighteousness, among them that perish, because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.

      11 And therefore God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe lies,

      12 That all they might be damned which believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

      In context from the World English Bible (pro-pre-Jacob's Trouble-Rapture translation of 2 Thessalonians 2:3)

      2 Thessalonians 2 World English Bible (WEB)

      2 Now, brothers, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together to him, we ask you 2 not to be quickly shaken in your mind, nor yet be troubled, either by spirit, or by word, or by letter as from us, saying that the day of Christ had come. 3 Let no one deceive you in any way. For it will not be, unless the departure comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of destruction, 4 he who opposes and exalts himself against all that is called God or that is worshiped; so that he sits as God in the temple of God, setting himself up as God. 5 Don’t you remember that, when I was still with you, I told you these things? 6 Now you know what is restraining him, to the end that he may be revealed in his own season. 7 For the mystery of lawlessness already works. Only there is one who restrains now, until he is taken out of the way. 8 Then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord will kill with the breath of his mouth, and destroy by the manifestation of his coming; 9 even he whose coming is according to the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, 10 and with all deception of wickedness for those who are being lost, because they didn’t receive the love of the truth, that they might be saved. 11 Because of this, God sends them a working of error, that they should believe a lie; 12 that they all might be judged who didn’t believe the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. 13 But we are bound to always give thanks to God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because God chose you from the beginning for salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief in the truth; 14 to which he called you through our Good News, for the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15 So then, brothers, stand firm, and hold the traditions which you were taught by us, whether by word, or by letter.

      16 Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God our Father, who loved us and gave us eternal comfort and good hope through grace, 17 comfort your hearts and establish you in every good work and word.


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